Saturday, October 18, 2014

Evolving Footnotes

Here are the footnotes from the book with live links:
1.    People who are experts in these areas may quibble some with these definitions, and the lines aren’t always as easy to maintain as this may suggest, but it should work for the purposes of this book.
3.    This is not an opening for a God of the Gaps who intervenes in the areas we cannot explain, but rather who has intervened to accomplish things that are impossible by natural causes. An example of this is the introduction of the Image of God into humans.
4.    The line between these last two is extremely blurry and probably occurs on a spectrum. The extreme end of Undirected Evolution would be deism or agnosticism; the extreme end of the other would be intentionally-guided evolution, with most people who believe in God and evolution being somewhere between, but more comfortable with one end than the other. In my way of defining things, neither definition excludes faith.
5.    Super technically, it’s 186,282 miles, 698 yards, 2 feet, and 5 inches per second
8.    I made up those terms. I’m sure there are more complicated names out there but I like to keep things as simple as possible.
9.    Numbers 23:19; Titus 1:2; Hebrews 6:18.
10. John 14:6
17. Your specific cove may not have any theological problems with the age of the earth or the theory of evolution. For instance, if you’re Catholic, evolution and an old earth are no theological big deal. See http://www.religionfacts.com/christianity/creation_evolution/evolution_and_the_catholic_church.htm You could possibly even skip this whole chapter.
18. 1 Corinthians 15:17
19. “The doctrine of the Trinity means that there is one God who eternally exists as three distinct Persons--the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.” http://www.desiringgod.org/articles/what-is-the-doctrine-of-the-trinity 
20. Protestant Evangelical Christianity often has a strong anti-hierarchical bent. For groups with a more hierarchical structure, it is usually the responsibility of the upper-level leaders to define and maintain the group’s adherence.
22. John 20:30-31
23. I’m using “he” in the generic sense, but the Bible was written in a time when female authorship was exceedingly rare, and it’s doubtful if any of the books of the Bible had a female author. 
24. One example of how literalistic can often lead to improper understanding would be our common phrase “bathroom”. Literalistically, the reason one would go to the bathroom would be to take a bath, though many of us almost never use it for that function. Here’s a nice blog on the subject that doesn’t involve toiletry: http://sydneyanglicans.net/blogs/culture/literal_or_literalistic_whats_the_difference
25. We’ll look at the chronologies problem in Chapter 3.
26. Augustine in The Literal Interpretation of Genesis.
27. Augustine, The City of God, Book I, ch.6.208
29. Billy Graham: Personal Thoughts of a Public Man, 1997.  p. 72-74
31. Ibid.
32. “There are many conservative evangelical scholars (though admittedly they are now in a minority) who know Hebrew and love Christ and display godly character every bit as well as any old-earth creationists do but who hold to the young-earth view.” http://creation.com/are-biblical-creationists-cornered-a-response-to-dr-jp-moreland
33. John 21:25, if you’re looking for some backup on that statement.
34. When you, God, went out before your people, when you marched through the wilderness, the earth shook, the heavens poured down rain. (Psalm 68:7-8)
35. After this I saw four angels standing at the four corners of the earth, holding back the four winds of the earth. (Revelation 7:1)
37. “Be on your guard against the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees.” (Matthew 16:6)
38. “The kingdom of heaven is like yeast…” (Matthew 13:13)
39. This is how you are to eat it: with your cloak tucked into your belt, your sandals on your feet and your staff in your hand. Eat it in haste; it is the LORD’s Passover. (Exodus 12:11)
40. Isaiah 55:9
41. Exodus 20:13
42. Matthew 22:39
43. “Most if not all of what are sometimes deemed historical inaccuracies or contradictions slip out of sight when we focus on the conventions of ancient literature…” Walton, John H.; Sandy, D. Brent (2013-11-01). The Lost World of Scripture: Ancient Literary Culture and Biblical Authority (p. 213). InterVarsity Press. Kindle Edition.
44. Ong, Walter J. (2002). Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word (Second ed.). London and New York: Routledge. pp. 49–54.
45. If you’d like to learn more about orality, especially its impact on how we read and interpret the Bible, and if you don’t mind tackling some pretty scholarly writing, I highly recommend The Lost World of Scripture: Ancient Literary Culture and Biblical Authority by John Walton and Brent Sandy.
47. http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2014/february-web-only/study-2-million-scientists-identify-as-evangelical.html. Interestingly, those who consider themselves Evangelical are more likely to attend weekly worship services, pray daily, and read the Bible weekly than Evangelicals who are not scientists.
50. McGovern PJ, et al. (1995). Dendrochronology. "Science in Archaeology: A Review". AJA 99 (1): 79–142.
51. This link is for an image of two ice cores where the annual layers are clearly visible. http://summitvoice.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/ice-core-striations.jpg
55. It’s actually shale and sandstone, but describing it that way risks moving this example from complicated to confusing.
56. Making this what’s called an angular unconformity.
57. In the Taconic Unconformity near Catskill, NY, which I’m describing here, the bottom, older layer is made of shale (quartz and clay minerals) and sandstone (SiO2), the second is primarily limestone with some magnesium (Ca, Mg). http://hudsonvalleygeologist.blogspot.com/2010/01/picture-of-week-taconic-unconformity.html
58. Unconformities also provide an intersection point for the primary principles of geology. If you want to get a grasp of the fundamental concepts of geology, including its history, you probably won’t find a better starting point than studying unconformities.
59. An example of a coral unconformity is the Eemian disconformity in a fossil coral reef on Great Inagua, The Bahamas.
62. In the chapter “Watergate and the Resurrection” from the book Loving God by Charles Colson. Great book, by the way.
63. “In Renaissance Europe, the justification for what we today call the scientific approach to inquiry was the belief in a rational God whose created order could be discerned from a careful study of nature.” Paul Davies, The Mind of God: Science and the Search for Ultimate Meaning (London: Penguin, 1992), 77, cited by McGrath, A. E. (2012). Mere Apologetics: How to Help Seekers and Skeptics Find Faith (p. 102). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books.
64. C. S. Lewis, “Is Theology Poetry?” C. S. Lewis: Essay Collection (London: Harper-Collins, 2000), 21.
65. Romans 8:29
68. That’s a lot of spiders!
74. Alexander, Denis (2008-07-18). Creation or Evolution (Kindle Locations 3401-3403). Monarch Books. Kindle Edition.
75. Alexander, Denis (2008-07-18). Creation or Evolution (Kindle Locations 3211-3212). Monarch Books. Kindle Edition. To be more precise, some of the genes have been permanently turned off due to mutations, but that doesn’t directly impact our discussion here. 
76. The letters stand for the four nucleotides that carry the information within DNA, adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine.
77. “First it should be emphasised that our shared inheritance with the apes is one of the most certain conclusions of contemporary biology.” Alexander, Denis (2008-07-18). Creation or Evolution (Kindle Locations 3135-3136). Monarch Books. Kindle Edition.
78. If your curious, the close-relative sequence is Humans-Chimpanzees-Gorillas-Orangutans.
79. Quoted in “A Tale of Two Scientists: A Young Earth Creationist and an Evolutionary Creationist” by Tim Stafford in The Origins Debate: Evangelical perspectives on creation, evolution, and intelligent design (Christianity Today Essentials) (Kindle Locations 306-307). Christianity Today International. Kindle Edition.
80. Your Inner Fish by Neil Shubin (Vintage Books).
81. Obviously, many people would not include an Adam and Eve in that population.
83. http://www.twu.ca/studenthandbook/university-policies/community-covenant-agreement.html#christian-community. The school’s mission: "As an arm of the Church, to develop godly Christian leaders: positive, goal-oriented university graduates with thoroughly Christian minds; growing disciples of Christ who glorify God through fulfilling the Great Commission, serving God and people in the various marketplaces of life."
84. Psalm 90:2-4
85. There are Christians who think we do not need a literal Adam and Eve, but I cannot come up with a way to work in the need for Jesus without a Fall in some form, and I can’t get to a Fall without two people to do the falling. Here’s a great article by a really smart Christian on how he solves the problem. http://thinkchristian.reframemedia.com/historical-adam-one-possible-scenario
86. That’s Number Two. Number Three concerns the part of the curse toward Eve to “multiply your pain in childbearing” (ESV). Hard to multiply if there was no prior childbirth and no prior pain. Not as good as the first two, but still adds up.
87. Living with the Darwin Fish: Another ‘Missing Link’ Won’t Destroy My Faith Stan Guthrie in The Origins Debate: Evangelical perspectives on creation, evolution, and intelligent design (Christianity Today Essentials) (Kindle Locations 1151-1158). Christianity Today International. Kindle Edition.
88. St. Augustine, De Genesi ad litteram (The Literal Meaning of Genesis) Vol 1 Ch 19
90. Rees, Martin, Just Six Numbers: The Deep Forces That Shape The Universe, Basic Books (May 8, 2001)
91. McGrath, A. E. (2012). Mere Apologetics: How to Help Seekers and Skeptics Find Faith (p. 99). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books.

92. Acts 1:6-8 paraphrase. The disciple asked, “Jesus, are you bringing in the end times now?” Jesus’ response: “None of your business. God will take care of that. Your job is to take the Good News throughout the world.”

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